Terms used on the Internet
ActiveX : A set of applications that enrich a Web page with complex functions that can only be run on a Windows computer. It can pose security problems because it is a real program that runs from the page viewed on the user's computer (yours).
ADSL : (Asynchronous Digital Subscriber Line)
Mode of transmission of data by the telephone network allowing a fast and permanent connection. The current speeds are 512 Kilobit / second, the speed of a conventional modem. The generalization of ADSL will revolutionize the use of the Internet ... for lucky people who are lucky not to live more than 5 km from a central telephone.
Analog : Which is represented by the continuous variation of a physical value. For example, the variations of the modulation of the electric current on the telephone network that make it possible to transmit the voice are analog. Opposes digital.
Antispam :A method of avoiding being a victim of spam, that is, unwanted or unsolicited e-mails. If you venture on newsgroups, your address will be visible to everyone, including robots that are mailing lists for advertising purposes. Use another address (from a provider of free addresses like hotmail for example)
ANSI : American National Standards Institute. Sometimes incorrectly qualifies the characters used in Windows when it is the game ISO 8859-1 or Latin 1 or ISO Latin-1.
AOL : America OnLine, the world's leading Internet access provider.
API : (Application Programming Interface)
Programming interface that allows a user to develop user-friendly applications on the Internet.
Applet :It is an application that runs in a restricted environment. It is loaded along with an Internet page. The most common applets are done in JAVA language that works, unlike ActiveX, on all computers
Archive : Library of files kept in a website. FTP servers are generally used to host archives.
ASCII : American Standard Code for Information Interchange. It is a 128-character set that has become a virtually universal standard. It has all alphanumeric characters unaccented and is readable by virtually any machine in the world. The advantage of ASCII is to guarantee a data-safe transmission over the entire Net since it is only 7-bit coded (ie each ASCII character can be encoded with only 7 pieces of information). binary 0 or 1 since 2 power 7 = 128).
B2B : Business to Business, e-commerce site for business-to-business commerce.
B2C : Business to Consumer, commerce site for consumers.
Backbone : Very high speed lines that are the backbone of the Internet.
Backoffice : Expression to define the administrative part of a Web site (also CMS).
Bandwidth : Amount of information that can convey a communication channel. The bandwidth is measured in bits per second (bps). On the Internet, it corresponds to the maximum flow of the pipe that the data you are looking at is borrowing. It is shared between users using the same « pipe », resulting in slowdowns at peak times.
Baud : A transmission rate unit corresponding to the number of state changes of a signal per second. Characterized the modems and should not be confused with the bit per second (bps).
BBS : Ancestor of the Internet, agonizing, contemporary Minitel. The Bulletin Board System allowed for direct telephone communication (not the Internet) dialogue and file uploads. Also exists on the Internet.
Bcc : Blind Courtesy Copy. Invisible copy or CCI in French.
Sending a copy of a message to a third party without the knowledge of its primary recipient. This e-mail option is handy for discreetly preventing X that we have informed Y ...
It is also recommended when you want to inform a list of recipients, without them can identify themselves to make a mini mass mailing. It is then necessary to send the message to oneself and to put the recipients in BCC (or CCI).
Binary :The only language that computers can handle: following 0 and 1 corresponding to yes or no. Each 0 or 1 is a bit which is therefore the smallest unit of information. All other forms of computer expression are derived from binary data. A text is a succession of binary data that encodes letters or numbers. The ASCII code is a 128-character set encoded with 7 bits: 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 = 128 combinations available.
Abusively, it is customary on the Internet to distinguish type data « text » (message, text of pages Web ) consisting of a sequence of characters, type data « binary » (images, sounds, programs).
Bit : BInary digiT contraction (binary digit).A 0 or a 1. The computers are all currently working in binary, ie in base 2. 0 is 0 - 1 is 1 - 2 is - 3 is 11, 4 is 0 - 5 is 1, and so on.
The unit above the bit is the octet, which represents 8 bits and of which there are 256 different combinations.
Body : Corps in french. Refers to the content of an email message or a Usenet article as opposed to its header (the header).
Bps : Bits per Second. Characterizes the throughput of a transmission system (eg. a modem). Not to be confused with bytes per second or bauds.
Browser : Software used to navigate the Web (in frnech: navigateur, butineur ou fureteur). Windows Explorer as an example.
Byte : An information unit containing a variable number of bits, generally 8 is one byte.
Cache (temporary files) : Temporary local copy on your computer of remote information to accelerate new access to this data. For example, your computer keeps a copy of the pages visited in its cache so that you can quickly display them again without having to reload them again from the site to which you are reconnecting.
Chat : Live chat on the Internet. To pronounce tchat.
Client/server : Common type of architecture on the Internet and more generally in IT: A server contains information, clients connect to it and submit a request. The corresponding processing is done by the server and the result is displayed on the client computer. Web is a good example of a client/server application.
CMS : (content management system),accessible by a password on the Web , so that you can update the website without having any programming knowledge. Vortex Solution is an easy-to-use CMS specialist to update all website content.
DNS : Domain Name Server, a distributed database across the network that takes care of the conversion between domain names
Downloader : Designate the transfer of data from a remote machine to the local computer. Opposes Uploader.
Email address or email : E-mail refers to the correspondence service that allows the exchange of electronic messages through a computer network. Email, contraction of electronic mail, means the message exchanged by this means. The address used has two parts separated by @
- Before @ your username, name, username, login etc
- After the @ the domain name of your ISP, then a dot, then the root domain. Also the 2nd part can be your own domain name for example: email@example.com
Email :Or email or e-mail: electronic mail. An email can be written in plain text or HTML. In the latter case, enrichments are possible (bold, color, image, tables), but some mailing software (increasingly rare) can not read messages in HTML and are automatically rejected.
Extranet : Marketing term designating an intranet that selectively allows access from outside, possibly through the Internet. Often used to connect a company to its subsidiaries.
FAQ : Frequently Asked Questions (most frequently asked questions), or Foire Aux Questions in french, Frequent Topic on websites . Originally, the term only referred to a list of answers to common questions asked in a focus group.
This convenient way of compiling frequently asked questions has become prevalent on the Internet in general.
Firewall : It is a security system with a simple program or a specific machine, which serves as a protection filter between a computer or a private network on the one hand, and the Internet on the other.
It is recommended to have a firewall software like Norton Internet Security when you leave your computer permanently connected to the Internet (cable or ADSL). The firewall may or may not include an antivirus.
Frames : Multi window system on an Internet page, rather convenient but sometimes irritating. Some sites offer a version with or without frames: choose the one that suits you best.
Freeware : Contraction of « Free softWare ». Free or freeware software. The author authorizes you to use his program free of charge. However, he retains the intellectual property; it is therefore not possible to modify a freeware.
FTP : File Transfer Protocol. Protocol used for transferring files over the Internet. Also refers to the file transfer program that uses this protocol. It is necessary to have a specialized program to access FTP servers.
Gateway : A machine that links two networks, usually because they can not communicate directly with each other.
GIF : Graphics Interchange Format, a format of compressed graphic files (images) created by CompuServe and since become a standard. The format is limited to 256 colors. GIF tends to be supplanted by JPEG, which takes fewer bytes and allows more color.
Gigabytes (Gb) : 1 073 741 824 bytes
Homepage : Refers to the default page of a website , the one that appears when you first sign in. This term also tends to refer to the personal site of an individual as opposed to the "homepage" of a commercial or institutional site.
Host : Central computer of a network responsible for managing user access and communicating with the outside world.
HTML : HyperText Markup Language. This markup language is used to enrich and structure hypertext data on the World Wide Web .
HTTP : HyperText Transfer Protocol. This is the World Wide Web protocol that makes text readable by a browser.
Hypertext : A data structuring concept that makes it possible to establish links between various elements within a set of documents. One can thus directly access from a document to the related documents referenced by the author by following the hypertext links. Step by step, it is theoretically possible to access all the documents available on the Web provided that they are linked together.This concept, enabled by the HTML language and the HTTP protocol is at the origin of the success of the Web .
IMAP : (Internet Message Access Protocol) E-mail retrieval service less common than POP.
IMHO : In My Humble Opinion.Supplied by AMHA "IMHO". Quite common in newsgroups.
Internet Protocol : The Internet protocol, at the base of the global network. Abbreviated by IP.
Intranet : An intranet is a network that uses the Internet's protocols and applications, but is not connected to it. Especially used by companies.
IP Address : An IP address (with IP for Internet Protocol ) is the number that identifies each computer on the Internet, and more generally, the network interface of any computer hardware (router, printer) connected to a network computer using the IP protocol. It is usually presented as a group of 4 numbers. Your computer, if connected to the Internet, has an IP address that is usually provided when your ISP connects. To find your own IP address on Windows, run the winipcfg.exe program located in the Windows directory.
ISDN : Integrated Services Digital Network. Digital communication protocol used by France Telecom for its network.
ISO : International Standard Organisation. International standardization body, whose secretariat is located in Geneva.
Internet service provider : (ISP) Business as www.Vortexsolution.com allowing your connection to the Internet. It leases high-speed lines that connect it to the backbone and share it among its subscribers. It also provides you with a mail service, an email address in the format firstname.lastname@example.org, and a place to host your website . In English ISP: Internet Service Provider.
Java : Universal programming language created by Sun. The principle is that a program written in Java can run on any computer provided that it has a subroutine called "virtual java machine". This virtual machine converts Java instructions into computer-specific instructions while forcing it to follow certain security rules.
Java programs are loaded and executed when displaying the page that contains them. They bear the name of applet.
JPEG : Joint Photographic Experts Group. Compression format of graphic files (images) allowing a very high ratio (compression ratio) at the cost of an alteration of the image invisible to the naked eye on an unmagnified image.
With the ability to compress images up to 16 million colors, unlike GIF, JPEG is the ideal format for photographs. It's also called JPG.
Keyword Purchase Campaigns - PPC : PPC stands for Pay Per Click, either pay per click. This is a billing method used for example in sponsored links AdWords, MSN or Yahoo.
Kilo-bytes (Kb) :24 bytes or 8192 bits.
LAN : Local Aera Network. Local network connecting computers within the same company or university for example.
Linux : Operating system belonging to the public domain created by Linus Thorvalds. Usable on a large number of different computers. Seriously threatens Windows. Still reserved for advanced users.
Log : Refers to the files that record the events on a machine. Journal of events in French.
A log file contains, for example, the list of connections made from other sites with the time and origin of each.
Login : The login is the name that identifies a user who connects to a computer or a website. It is often a mix of first name and last name. It is associated with a password.
Your login with your ISP is what is in front of the @.
Mega : Computer prefix corresponding to 2 to the power of 20, a little more than a million (1,048,576).
Mega-bytes (Mb) : 1,048,576 bytes, or 8,388,608 bits
Modem : Contraction of Modulator Demodulator. Device that converts bits into sounds that can be transmitted over the phone and vice versa to allow two remote computers to communicate. The maximum speed of a modem is measured in bits per second (bps) and not in baud (frequent error). This speed is very dependent on the quality of the telephone line.
Moderator : Leader on a focus group that enforces established rules and limits abuse. It has the ability to delete or view before publication the messages that will appear on the forum.
MP3 : Standard for exchanging music on the Internet. Quality close to the CD, small size of the pieces (a few megabytes).
MPEG : Motion Pictures Expert Group. Compression format of video images used especially for DVDs.
Navigator :Computer program that allows you to read files in HTML format, and thus to consult Web pages . The most common are MS Internet Explorer and Netscape.
NIC : Network Information Center. Organization responsible for managing a root domain. Cira is the Canadian agent. These are the NICs that assign the new domains, usually through a provider called registrars like www .vortexsolution.com .
Packet : The smallest unit of data flowing through the Internet. Everything that is exchanged between two computers is divided into packets, reassembled on arrival to recreate the original data. Packets that get lost on the road are re-transmitted thanks to the TCP-IP protocol that validates the good reception of transmitted packets.
PDF : The Portable Document Format (commonly abbreviated PDF) is a computer file format created by Adobe Systems. The specificity of the PDF is to preserve the formatting (fonts, images, graphic objects ...) as defined by its author, whatever the application and the platform used to read the file. PDF. The free reader, named "Adobe Reader" is available on many platforms and operating systems.
Ping : Program that sends a packet to an address and waits for a response. It measures the quality (speed) of the link with a server.
The result of the ping shows the number of packets sent, the number of packets received and the time taken for the round trip. It is this time expressed in milliseconds that is the most important data, especially for online games.
Pixel : The smallest component of a digital image or the display of your screen.
Plug-in : Complementary program allowing browsers to read certain image, video, animation or sound formats.
PnP : Abbreviation for Plug and Play.
POP : Post Office Protocol. Protocol used by your mail server : it is the one that allows you to retrieve your mail when you log in and ask to receive your message. Especially used in version 3 (POP3). Not to be confused with Point Of Presence: access point allowing a telephone connection.
Portal : Multiservice site, generally commercial, which provides links to a set of content or service pages.
Post : A message (article) posted in a newsgroup or in a forum like atoute .
PPP : Point to Point Protocol. Protocol allowing the connection between your modem and that of your ISP, on a conventional telephone line.
Protocol : A set of rules that allows two computers to communicate with each other for sending data.
Provider : Bold and frequent shortcut for Internet Service Provider like www.vortexsolution.com .
Proxy : In its most common sense, the proxy is a temporary storage space located at your ISP that mediates your request to the site you are looking for. If the page or document you want has been previously loaded by another user, you will be able to access it without experiencing slow network or unnecessarily cluttering it.
Public Domain : A program (or document) is said to be in the public domain if its author has waived his intellectual rights over his work.
Quicktime : Format of audio and / or video files developed by Apple. It is compatible with Macintosh and Windows platforms.
Real Audio : Sound format very used before the explosion of MP3.
Root Domain : Final part of the address of a machine on the Internet, which corresponds to his country. Some root domains are generic (.com for commercial, .org for organization). The root domain for Canada is .ca
ROT13 : Very simple algorithm for coding text used in newsgroups: each letter is shifted by 13 positions in the alphabet. Lets make unintelligible for the uninitiated a "hard" message or the answer to a riddle. The text is easily coded or decoded by the « decrypt » option (from the message menu in MS outlook express).
Router : A machine that provides the physical connection between two networks (local networks, networks connected to the Internet, etc.) and the management of the transmission of data packets from the transmitter to the receiver.
Shareware : Software in free trial. The author offers free trial its full or slightly bridged software so that users can test it. If they decide to use it, they send a sum to the author. Many excellent software is available as shareware, downloadable from archive sites or on the Web .
SMTP : Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, protocol used by your mail server. This brother of the POP allows you to send your mail to the server.
Spam, Spammer : Pejorative qualifier for a mail addressed to many Internet users, or an unwanted and unsolicited mail. The practice of « spamming » is unfortunately little repressed. Avoid leaving your real address on the newsgroups, at the risk of being flooded by commercials
SSL : Secure Socket Layer. Security agreement protocol.
TCP/IP : Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol. Data exchange protocol used on the Internet.
Trojan horse (type of virus) : In french « Cheval de Troie ». Variety of viruses that has the function of getting into your computer to facilitate the handling of it by a malicious third party when you are connected to the network.
Troll : Article (post) posted on a group or discussion forum for the sole purpose of launching a sterile and endless debate.
Tutorial : Educational software.
Unix : Operating system born in the 1970s in the United States that has many variants. Used by universities or large structures. Contributed a lot to the birth of the Internet.
Uploader : Sending data from his computer to the outside, as opposed to downloader.
URL : Uniform Ressource Locator. Description of the address of a computer or service on the Internet. On the Web , synonymous with the site address.
Usenet : Protocol to access Newsgroups services (newsgroups).
Virus : Small program whose goal is to spread and infect as many machines as possible. The viruses that circulate most currently are the macro viruses, contained in word or excel documents. You can not use the Internet, including email, without an up-to-date antivirus program.
VRML : Virtual Reality Modeling Language. Programming language to simulate three-dimensional views (virtual reality).
W3C : World Wide Web consortium
WAP : Wireless Access Protocol. New protocol for Internet access and services on a mobile device.
WAV : Format of sound files.
WebMaster : Person responsible for administering a Web server .
Webzine : Electronic magazine published exclusively on the Web .
Web Page : Internet document in HTML format.
World Wide Web : World spider web. The Internet flagship application, allowing you to consult pages written in HTML (read by a browser) or to load various documents. Synonym Web , WWW, or Canvas.
World Wide Web Consortium : Consortium democratic, which belongs to no one in particular and defines the evolution of WWW standards. W3C acronym.
Worm : Variety of computer viruses.
XML : Advanced markup language, derived from the SGML used in editing. Announced successor of HTML, will allow many enrichments or functions impossible to achieve with HTML.
ZIP : The most used file compression format. Requires a specific program for decoding the compressed file.